Guidebook (eng)

Arboretum and Institute of Physiography
in Bolestraszyce

THE BOLESTRASZYCE
ARBORETUM

GUIDEBOOK

Jerzy Piórecki , Kazimierz Zarzycki

Bolestraszyce 2004

GENERAL INFORMATION

The area of the Arboretum amounts to 305.57 ha, of which Bolestraszyce – 22.57 ha; Cisowa -283 ha.

Number of species, varieties and forms: 4000

The Arboretum is open to the public every day from 1 May to 31 October:

weekdays: 9 a.m. – 6 p.m.

weekends and holidays: 10 a.m. -6 p.m.

From 1 November to 30 April, weekdays only, from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m: Entrance fee – reduced rates for children and retired persons.

The Arboretum sells, during opening hours, its surplus plants – the current catalogues are obtainable, free of charge, at the cash desk or by mail. Public transport: local buses, in the Wyszatyce direction the bus stop Bolestraszyce-Arboretum. In off-season it is advisable to alight at the Bolestraszyce-Zamek stop. On the sides of the main roads from Przemyl there are boards giving directions towards Arboretum-Bolestraszyce – with the sign of a stylized tree or Wyszatyce. The Arboretum is situated within sensible walking distance from the Żurawica railway station.

Arboretum Bolestraszyce
37-700 Przemyl, skr. poczt. 471, Poland
tel./fax (+48 16 ) 67 16 425
www.bolestraszyce.com
e-mail: arboretum@poczta.onet.pl

INTRODUCTION

The Bolestraszyce Arboretum is situated 7 km north-east from Przemyl and it belongs to the gems of natural and cultural
heritage of the Małopolska region (south-east Poland). In Bolestraszyce history unites with modern times. This historic layout engulfs a park and a mansion – in which in the first half of the 19th century an excellent painter Piotr Michałowski lived and painted – and also a 19th century fort of the former Przemyl Fortress. Aged trees, being a remainder of the old castle gardens, are a very picturesque feature among new plantings, consisting of the species of foreign origin, as well as of the native specimens – trees, shrubs, and other rare, endangered, disappearing and protected plant species. The Arboretum is arranged in the vein of an old horticultural tradition of the Małopolska region, and especially looks to: Sieniawa, previously owned by Izabela Czartoryska, Magdalena Morska-Dzieduszycka’s Zarzecze, Dubiecko, formerly belonging to the Krasicki family, the Lubomirskis’ Miżyniec and the Pawlikowskis’ Medyka.

HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF THE CASTLE-GARDEN LAYOUT IN BOLESTRASZYCE

The beginnings of human abodes on the area of the present castle-garden layout in Bolestraszyce are not precisely known. A sort of military, fortified settlement had existed here for ages.Before 1440 Bolestraszyce had belonged to Steczko. Then, as a dowry, it became a part of goods owned by the Świętopełk family of Zawada, of the armigerous Lis. It was probably Stefan Świętopełk who, around the half of the l5th century, created a wooden fortalice on the hill, surrounded with embankments and moat, taking advantage of the natural land configuration. In the 16th century, and at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries at the latest, the fortalice was replaced by a bricked, fortified mansion. It is not clear when the name „castle” appeared.

During the period of 1600-1639 half of the possession belonged to Samuel Bolestraszycki – such was the new name of the Świętopełk family – who was at that time known as the translator and publisher of an antipapal book, authored by a Calvinist Pierre du Moulin, Héraclite ou de la vanité; et la misere de la vie humaine”.

Year 1639 marks an appearance of the first written source referring to Bolestraszyce and concerning a foray into the estate.

In 1652 the estate became a property of the Drohojowski family, in whose possession it remained till the early l9th century.

Afterwards it belonged to the Morski and Ostrowski families. Presumably in the 18th century the Drohojowskis built the first one-floor outbuilding, which, after pulling down of the castle in the first half of the l9th century, became a mansion. The present garden layout was probably determined at the turn of the l7th and 18th centuries.

In 1846, in Bolestraszyce took up his residence an excellent painter Piotr Michałowski, married to Julia née Ostrowski. In the consecutive years he proved a very efficient administrator of the whole Bolestraszyce estate. This is a characteristic, however little known feature of the illustrious men of Romanticism, and Piotr Michałowski should be undoubtedly regarded as such. The peer of Mickiewicz, Chopin, Słowacki and Krasiński, he had been a member of the Commission for Income and Treasury, where he had expertly managed the metallurgical industry, and during the November Uprising he had been appointed as the chief of weaponry in the Polish Army. He did not shrink from agricultural acivity as well, where he also proved his competency. On the artistic niveau, he was an outstanding genre painter, and particularly a painter of battle scenes. The main motive of his paintings and sketches was horse. After his death, in 1855, the estate remains in the hands of his family – wife, son and daughter. At the end of the 19th century Stanisław Michałowski adapted one chamber of the fortalice for a Roman Catholic chapel; a small tower was added to it during the interwar period.

In 1910 the whole estate was purchased by the Zajączkowski family, who had arrived from Podole. They owned the estate until 1944.

As a result of so called „agricultural reform” at the beginning of the communist period, a primary school was established in the mansion while in the other buldings the agricultural machinery was stored. Some of the chambers of historic value were used as living quarters or utility rooms. In 1975 the local authorities made over the remains of the ruined estate to the Arboretum and the Institute of Physiography of the Society of the Friends of Sciences in Przemyśl. Thanks to the efforts of the Arboretum itself, and above all thanks to the self-attained incomes, as well as sympathetic responses from friendly people and institutions, the mansion and the other buildings were reconstructed and adapted for the needs of the Arboretum. The garden was also renovated.

In the years 1975-2004 the Arboretum’s area was aggrandized, mainly through the purchase of 283 ha of the land in Cisowa, in 1996. Still earlier the greens on the lower terrace had been purchased, while the Fort XIIIb had been given to the Arboretum by the State.

Today the Arboretum operates as a cultural institution under the authority of the Marshal’s Office (Urząd Marszałkowski) of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship.

LOCATION AND A GENERAL DESCRIPTION

The Arboretum, in its Bolestraszyce part, covers 22.57 ha, including 0.83 ha of the ponds. From the geological point of view, it is situated on the border between the woodless loess fault scarp and the Sandomierz Valley – on the uplifted upper terrace, scarp and the San valley; the terrain is diversified and its height above sea-level is between 195 m and 216 m. On the lower terrace three ponds are situated. Two of them, with their irregular shoreline, were created after the Arboretum had been established, while the small pond, with its shape nearing rectangular, is the remainder of primary garden layout. In the older days the river was flowing along the foot of the escarpment.

The climate of the Przemyl-Bolestraszyce area is relatively mild and the soil is fertile. That is why, already ages before, this area had been deforested and transformed into arable fields, meadows and pastures. A reminder of these old forests, which had been growing on the rich loess soil, not too soggy, are, preserved in the garden of the Arboretum, sizeable little-leaf lindens (Tilia cordata), dating probably from the 18th century. The remainder of the periodically flooded greens are the huge-sized abeles (Populus alba). As the result of dessication and other activities, a small aspen (Populus tremula) cove developed here. Along with the poplars (Populus) few grey alders (Alnus incana) grow here, this species being widely spread in the nearby Carpathians, where it grows in the proximity of brooks and torrents.

The common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), dominating today in the Arboretum’s tree stand, was deliberately introduced by man, and in consequence it supplanted the elm (Ulmus), which had been the main component of the o1d-growth forest. Besides we have got here some sizeable European ashes (Fraxinus excelsior) and hedge maples (Acer campestre). Noteworthy is also a purple variety of the plane-tree maple (Acer pseudoplatanus).

On the area owned by the Arboretum there are, in general, over 4000 species, varieties and forms of plants. So, in fact, the Arboretum is a botanical garden.

Furthermore, the Arboretum harbours over 120 species of vertebrates, mainly birds, of which nearly 40 species nest here, while during autumn-winter period we are visited by up to 80 bird species. Thanks to the permanent exhibition, housed by the Natural History Museum of our Arboretum, one can take a closer look at them.

TASKS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE ARBORETUM

The Bolestraszyce Arboretum, likewise the botany gardens in Kraków and Lublin, implements in this part of the country its various tasks as a natural and cultural object, and as an institution engaged in the activity on the educational and scientific fields.

In Bolestraszyce one can see not only grand native trees, but also trees of foreign origin _ for example, bald cypresses (Taxodium distichum) growing in the pond. The ponds became a habitat of many rare and endangered species in Poland, like the water caltrop (Trapa natans) and the four-leaved pepperwort (Marsilea quadrifolia), while their shores are grown with the royal fern (Osmunda regalis) and the heart-leaved oxeye (Telekia speciosa). Around 70 plant species of those collected on the Arboretum’s area are encompassed by the country’s Red List. These species are marked with the corresponding labels.

In the section of cultivated plants, and particularly in the pomological garden, about 600 apple-tree (Malus) varieties and forms are collected, predominantly from the Małopolska region. Generally, some 2000 fruit trees grow in our Arboretum. These varieties,cultivated for ages, are adapted to the local soil and weather conditions, and are more immune than those which are common in farm orchards. The fair-sized cornellian cherries (Cornus mas) are a remainder of the old orchards, and in Bolestraszyce we have got the biggest collection of this species in the whole country. This plant is a source of fruits for excellent preserves, jams and liqueurs. The dwarf cherry (Cerasus fruticosa) – giving tasty, sourish fruits and being hardy – is sustained in our collection as well.

In this true oasis numerous animals have found their mainstay. We speak here not only about birds, being man’s natural allies in his fight against insect pests, but also about the beautiful butterflies and bumblebees (Bombus), pollinating a vast number of plants.

In the Arboretum, with its preserved diversity of biological forms, one can get into acquaintance with the problems of biology and ecology, and one can become versed into the principles of nature conservation, whereas our educational activity is directed mainly at the young generation. Maintaining the historical continuity and protecting the old garden layouts against oblivion and devastation, we adapt them to the exigencies of the modern times.

THE ARBORETUM’S ARBORICULTURE

The Bolestraszyce Arboretum has collected many species of trees, shrubs, undershubs and herbaceous plants. As it has already been mentioned, the collection consists of native plants, foreign plants and historic plants, i.e. the plants cultivated in the older days and disappearing nowadays, as for example the high – growing apple-trees (Malus). The survivors from the primary garden pattern are the grand-sized little-leaf lindens (Tilia cordata), dating probably from the end of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. From the end of the 19th century originate the abeles (Populus alba) and the European ashes (Fraxinus excelsior). The biggest, still growing buckeyes (Aesculus) and larches (Larix) are 70 years old, while the oldest cornellian cherries (Cornus mas) exceed 80 years of age.

Until the half of the 20th century the dominant species in the old-growth forests was the Scotch elm (Ulmus glabra), which in some places, and particularly on the escarpment of the loess threshold, constituted up to 80% of the species composition. After its extinction _ the process which took place in the years 1950-1960 -it was supplanted by Nature with the well-stocked stands of the common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), being today a dominating element of the tree-stand. Here and there one can see the arborescent forms of hawthorns (Crataegus) and the spindle tree (Euonymus europaea). Almost nothing, however, is left of the huge willows (Salix) and the abeles (Populus alba), with their trunk size being comparable to this of the huge oaks (Quercus) growing on the stand number six. As self-sown trees, in our Arboretum we have got also the European aspens (Populus tremula), which form a small grove, the hornbeams (Carpinus), the hedge maple (Acer campestre), the black and grey alders (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana), attaining considerable sizes. A residue of the old plantings are also two European larches (Larix decidua), several blue spruces (Picea pungens) and one common spruce (Picea abies) – saber form – one of the highest trees in the Arboretum: its height exceeds 30 m and its side branches reach the ground. The hollows of the old birches (Betula) and lindens (Tilia) have been chosen by the numerous birds – jackdaws (Corvus monedula), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) – for their nesting places; the tree hollows are also inhabited by the squirrels (Sciurus). According to the local oral tradition, a number of big pines (Pinus) and spruces (Picea) growing in the mansion garden were treated as raw material and, in consequence, cut down; while the old ashes (Fraxinus) and maple-trees (Acer), erstwhile growing along the track leading to the Fort XIIIb, were destroyed by fire.

In the various parts of the garden one can meet the yews (Taxus); it is said that during the First World War the Cossack horses poisoned themselves with them. As a titbit worth mentioning, one can adduce the fact that once a big, today dried-out, plane tree (Platanus) hosted 56 rook (Corvus frugilegus) nests. Among the native creepers, deserving attention are flowering and fruiting English ivies (Hedera helix), which are distinguished by dimorphism of leaves – the top leaves of the blooming sprouts are unlobated. These plants, transferred to the Arboretum from the Carpathian Foothills, have already started to blossom. At times this creeper so strongly increases in girth that it chokes its host.

The Arboretum collections contain many trees and shrubs: we possess over 1100 yews (Taxus), 2000 apple trees (Malus), 180 magnolias (Magnolia), 160 cornellian cherries (Cornus mas), 30 Turkish filberts (Corylus colurna), 200 European bladdernuts (Staphylea pinnata), more than 150 bald cypresses (Taxodium distichum), 200 dawn redwoods (Metasequoia glyptostroboides).

In the period of 1975-2004 more than 4000 species and varieties were collected in our garden, 100 of which are housed in the orangery. The trees which have grown to the biggest sizes are: the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), the tree-of-heaven ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), the European chestnut (Castanea sativa), the northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), the black walnut (Juglans nigra), the European larch (Larix decidua), the common spruce (Picea abies), the blue spruce (Picea pungens), the Siberian crab apple (Malus baccata).

Unfortunately, Nature is everlastingly teaching us lessons in humility. In the last 25 years the Arboretum’s plant collection was affected by several natural calamities. And so, the huge tufts of snow brought down and uprooted, or broke down, many dozens of trees and shrubs, including several old deciduous trees, however the majority of the victims were coniferous trees which were planted after the Arboretum had been established. The damage touched 90% of the population of the Lawson false cypresses (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) and also the American arborvitaes (Thuja occidentalis). Many yews (Taxus), magnolias (Magnolia) and above all blue spruces (Picea pungens) and Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) fell down under the weight of the snow as well. While the voles (Microtus) caused the destruction of 100 magnolias (Magnolia), of the same number of maidenhair trees (Ginkgo), and of 2000 apple trees (Malus).

THE WILD HERBACEOUS PLANTS

On the area covered by the Arboretum there are 124 confirmed species of the herbaceous floral plants of natural origin – wild growing plants. These are either native species or foreign species accidentally introduced by man. These plants usually spread over lowlands _ in forests, meadows and fields. Spring is a time of mass blossoming of the hallow root (Corydalis cava) and the common violet (Viola odorata). The vast spreads of nettles (Urtica) prove the overfertilization of the soil, to which in a quite significant degree contributes a considerable rook (Corvus frugilegus) colony. A very annoying field weed, the common chickweed (Stellaria media), flowering practically all the year round, is also widely met; and a species representing the mountainous herbaceous community is the marsh thistle (Carduus personata).

RARE, ENDANGERED, DISAPPEARING AND PROTECTED PLANTS

Our collection of rare, endangered and protected plants has been based upon the existing lists of legally protected plants, dying-out plants, plants on the verge of extinction, and plants which are rare in the Polish flora, and especially in the south-east region of Poland. So, we have got a very significant – even having in view the whole Polish plant community – collection of yew (Taxus) and of the European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata). As far as the plants listed in the Polish Red Book are concerned, the following species are harboured in our Arboretum: the alpine squill (Scilla bifolia), Helleborus purpurascens, the pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens), the gas-plant dittany (Dictamnus albus), the carline (Carlina onopordifolia), endemic Erysimum pieninicum, the brickberry cotoneaster (Cotoneaster tomentosus), the savin juniper (Juniperus sabina), the false medlar (Sorbus chamaemespilus), the Swedish mountain ash (Sorbus intermedia), the parviflorous corydalis (Corydalis pumila), the stool iris (Iris aphylla), the grass
iris (Iris graminea), the water caltrop (Trapa natans), the Austrian flax (Linum austriacum), the rough-haired flax (Linum hirsutum), the four-leaved pepperwort (Marsilea quadrifolia), Cirsium decussatum, the St Bernard’s lily (Anthericum liliago), the French rose (Rosa gallica), the amber-bloom rhododendron (Rhododendron luteum), the checkered fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris), the Portuguese broom (Chamaecytisus albus), the dwarf cherry (Cerasus fruticosa).

And of the group of other endangered, dying-out and protected plants we should mention the folowing: the English ivy (Hedera helix), the white hellebore (Veratrum album), the American false hellebore (Veratrum lobelianum), the mountain avens (Dryas octopetala), the royal fern (Osmunda regalis), the carline thistle (Carlina acaulis), the trumpet gentian (Gentiana clusii), the Deptford pink (Dianthus armeria), Dianthus compactus, the yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea), the yellow pea (Lathyrus laevigatus), the fringed water lily (Nymphoides peltata), the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis), the guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), the sand cudweed (Helichrysum arenarium), the lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), the European wild ginger (Asarum europaeum), the Siberian iris (Iris sibirica), the alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus), the yellow flax (Linum flavum), the martagon lily (Lilium martagon), the lesser twayblade (Listera cordata), the European scopolia (Scopolia carniolica), the spring adonis (Adonis vernalis), the Alpine arum (Arum alpinum), the elecampane (Inula helenium), the Austrian leopard’s bane (Doronicum austriacum), the European goldilocks (Linosyris vulgaris), the sylvan goatbeard (Aruncus sylvestris), the globe flower (Trollius europaeus), the oxlip (Primula elatior), the cowslip (Primula officinalis), the ground clematis (Clematis recta), the ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris), the dwale (Atropa belladonna), the common sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), the Swiss mountain pine (Pinus mugo), the floating moss (Salvinia natans), the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra), the tassel grape hyacinth (Muscari comosum), the common star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum), the spring snowflake (Leucoium vernum), the common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), Aconitum moldavicum, the daphne (Daphne mezereum), the rose daphne (Daphne cneorum), the jacobsladder (Polemonium coeruleum), the woodbine honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), the cross-leaved heath (Erica tetralix), the narcissus anemone (Anemone narcissifolia), the wood wind-flower (Anemone sylvestris), the meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale).
We have secured a natural habitat for Cirsium decussatum in our section in Cisowa. We also endeavour to preserve the meadows with a community of the checkered fritillary (Fritillaria meleagris) in Krówniki, near Przemyśl.

LICHENS, FUNGI, ALGAE, BRYOPHYTES

Apart from various trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants, also other organisms grow in our Arboretum -small-sized and of peculiar character. The lichens are such plants. They are compound organisms of fungi and algae, which have a symbiotic relationship. Their thallus consists of autotrophic green alga and heterotrophic fungus. This symbiotic coexistence of the different organisms creates a differentiated lichen thallus – crustaceous, leafy, or bushy in form _ covering the bark of trees, shrubs, rotting wood, and even walls, plaster works, concrete posts, pavement slabs, stones etc.

On the area of the Arboretum there are 72 species of lichens. Nine of them are under strict legal protection, other three are regarded as dying-out species and eleven as being vulnerable to extinction in Poland. It is a well established fact that the epiphyte 1ichens attached to the tree bark are very vulnerable to the air polluted with sulphur and fluorine, and to the air rich in ozone, what makes them a very important indicator species of the atmospheric pollution, i.e. the monitoring species of the lichens’ biological scale. In our Arboretum, year after year, we scrutinize the thalusses of the following lichen species, in order to determine a degree of their deformation and necrosis: Bacidia rubella, Graphis scripta, the oakmoss (Evernia prunastri), Pseudovernia furfuracea, Physcia aipolia, Punctelia subrudecta, Physconia enteroxantha, the common greenshield (Flavoparmelia caperata) etc. What should be highlighted here, is the fact that in recent years the above-mentioned species have had much more shapely thalusses and the new thalusses are created. This proves that in our Arboretum the environmental conditions are getting more and more favourable, which is the result of the decreasing sulphur-level in the air.

The Arboretum is also engaged in the scientific research concerning the parasitic and saprophytic fungi, mosses (Bryopsida), liverworts (Hepaticopsida), and aerial algae. During the last 9 years we have stated the presence of 208 species of the large-fructification fungi. In the group of phytopatological fungi of trees and shrubs, some completely unknown to science fungus species have been discovered, within the Arboretum’s premises, together with 36 newly met in Poland species, and 16 species which are generally extremely rare.

PROTECTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY. THE EAST-CARPATHIAN SECTION OF THE ARBORETUM IN CISOWA

The East-Carpathian Section of the Arboretum in Cisowa, being in fact a glade, is situated in the middle of the forested Przemyl Foothills and has very diversified land configuration (309 – 420 m above the sea level). It covers 283 ha and is naturally skirted by the beech-fir forests. The hydrological pattern is very variegated, with numerous streams, rock steps and waterfalls. The main road-and-settlement axe runs along the valley of the Cisowa stream, to which, amphitheatrically, slope the surrounding hills, being here and there marked with terraces. The inner-field ravines preserve various communities of plants, which, as far as Polish flora is concerned, are classified as rare ones. We possess here Cirsium decussatum, the daphne (Daphne mezereum), the English ivy (Hedera helix), the cowslip (Primula officinalis) and in the stream valleys _ the cordate comfrey (Symphytum cordatum). The main characteristic of the secondary meadows is a half-natural flora (more than 120 species). The natural forest plant communities, composed of beech (Fagus), fir (Abies), hornbeam (Carpinus), with the admixture of the plane-tree maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and the little-leaf linden (Tilia cordata), are preserved in the intersecting the fields ravines and forest belts.

The main task, which the East-Carpathian Section of the Arboretum in Cisowa has imposed on itself, is active protection of the flora and the conservation of its diversity _ in ex situ and in situ conditions _ and the maintenance of the permanently unchanged areas, the stations of the non-forest plants included. Simultaneously the scientific work is carried out, centered on the secondary forest succession in the multiannual cycles, together with the upkeep of the collection of dying-out, rare and endangered plant species, and also of the historic varieties of fruit trees and shrubs, mainly apple trees (Malus).

Independently from the active environmental protection, we are currently creating a regional centre for nature education. The constant monitoring directed at the conservation of the rare, endangered, dying-out and protected species will also take place.

THE PROMINENT BOTANISTS, ARTISTS AND SCHOLARS CONNECTED WITH PRZEMYL AND ITS REGION

Stanisław Batko (1904-1975) – a botanist; he greatly contributed to the examination of the sylvan flora of the Przemyl region in the first half of the 20th century.

Bolesław Kotula (1849-1895) _ a botanist, an expert on flora of the Przemyśl region and of the Tatra Mountains.

Piotr Michałowski (1800-1855) _ a painter of battle scenes, a prominet representative of Romanticism in Poland, also the chief of weaponry in the Polish Army during the November Uprising; the owner of Bolestraszyce around the half of the l9th century. Julian Olszak (1917-1991) _ a scholar on Polish literature, having emotional ties with Przemyl and its region.

Jan Gwalbert Pawlikowski (1860-1939) – from Medyka, a pioneer of the nature conservation in Poland.

Franciszek Persowski (1895-1980) – a historian of Przemyśl and its region; for many years the president of the Society of the Friends of Sciences in Przemyśl.

Władysław Seneta (1923-2003) – an outstanding dendrologist, a lecturer for many years at the Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at the Main School of Farming in Warsaw.

Władysław Szafer (1886-1970) _ an outstanding botanist and community worker; a distinguished activist in the field of nature conservation, a vice-chancellor of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, a vice-chairman of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the founder and director of the Institute of Botany – today bearing his name – of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

Tadeusz Trella (1885-1940) – an entomologist, who greatly contributed to the description of the insects of the Przemyśl region; a member of the Physiographical Commission of the pre-war Polish Academy of Sciences, a teacher of biology in the First Secondary School in Przemyśl.

THE MAIN GATE

An open-air ethnographical museum. An exposition room, point for plant sale, and rain shelter. The spot is skirted by four-row sheltering plantings. Parking.

THE SECTION FOR TAXONOMY AND BIOLOGY OF PLANTS

At the present moment _ under construction. This is a new section for taxonomy and biology, mainly of herbaceous, perennial and crop plants, but also of alpine, rare, endangered, dying-out and protected plants. Irises (Iris), peonies (Paeonia) and day lilies (Hemerocallis) have already been collected. In autumn dahlias (Dahlia) sparkle with their colours. As far as trees are concerned, a nodding form of the little-leaf linden (Tilia cordata) grows here, apart from mountain ashes (Sorbus), mock oranges (Philadelphus) and – by the ditch – lilacs (Syringa). A prospect of a small church, fort and escarpment grown with the locust (Robinia) and the yew (Taxus).

THE CONCENTRATION OF CONIFERS

This collection is composed mainly of yews (Taxus), junipers (Juniperus) and arborvitaes (Thuja). In the corner, near the ditch, several interesting deciduous trees grow: the big-fruited guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), a motley-leaved variety of the common elder (Sambucus nigra), the tamarisk (Tamarix). Deep within, there is an arbour and a spherical form of the whitebeam (Sorbus aria).

THE BLACK OAK TRUNKS

On the common, in a small distance from the „Legendary Three Brothers”, there lie big black oak trunks. They were extracted in 1999 from the post-glacial floor in the gravel-pit in Radymno, from the depth of 4-6 m. They were embedded in a layer of the river sand, which fills up the former San valley. Botanists presume that oaks appeared on the area of today’s Poland about 8-9 thousand years ago. Our black oaks are mighty trunks, which had been immersed in water for many thousand years (according to some naturalists – for at least 3 thousand years) and thereby had acquired almost ebony colour and nearly stony hardness. Such specimens had already been found a long time before in the major rivers of Poland. The oldest black oak had been found in Lublinek, near Łodź, and its age was estimated for 9 thousand years. As a species, the oak trunks possessed by the Arboretum are the common oak (Quercus robur).

THE ESCARPMENT

At the foot of the escarpment: a big concentration of the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum). On the escarpment: numerous forms of the beech (Fagus). Along its former border, particularly under a double-line of the spruce (Picea), in summer – a dense, flowering bed of the heart-leaved oxeye (Telekia speciosa).

THE „THREE BROTHERS”

Two enormous _ their girth exceeds 5.2 m – trunks of the common oak (Quercus robur) lie here, alongside with a trunk of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) – the tree which formerly grew on the fork of tracks leading to the forts (now on this place stands a wayside shrine). Such trees had erstwhile grown in the Slavonic primeval forest; hence the reference to Lech, Czech and Rus – the legendary protoplasts of the Polish, Czech and Russian nations.

THE NEW POND

In its depths exist many varieties of water lilies (Nymphaea), also – the water caltrop (Trapa natans), algae (Cyanophyta) and on the pond’s verges _ the Siberian iris (Iris sibirica), the yellow iris (Iris pseudocorus) and the common marsh marigold (Caltha palustris). A thick, 2 m wide ring of the common cattail (Typha latifolia) girthes the mirror of the pond. Near its shores grow numerous species and varieties of the willow (Salix) and the birch (Betula). In the pond swim European catfishes (Silurus glanis), carps (Cyprinus carpio), pikes (Esox lucius), silver carps (Hypophthalmichthys moltrix) and grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Periodically, the pond is visited by the mud turtle (Emys orbicularis) and the otter (Lutra).

THE GREEN

Native species of grass; buttercups (Ranunculus), collections of the birch (Betula), of the black alder (Alnus glutinosa), of the poplar (Populus), of the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), of the black walnut (Juglans nigra), of the Russian elm (Ulmus laevis), of the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and of the spruce (Picea). Along its border _ a row consisting of the varieties of arborvitaes (Thuja). At the edge of the old garden _ a thick stand of the common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and a row of the American arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), and the common spruce (Picea abies); also numerous London plane trees (Platanus acerifolia) and Amur cork-trees (Phellodendron amurense).

THE MIDDLE-SIZED POND

A very interesting, multi-coloured _ white, yellow, red _ collection of the European white water lily (Nymphaea alba) and of the small water lily (Nymphaea candida); besides _ the water caltrop (Trapa natans). Close to the catwalk – big lobes of the yellow iris (Iris pseudacorus), numerous pondweeds (Potamogeton), and stoneworts – many charas (Chara). On the shore – the heart-leaved oxeye (Telekia speciosa); past the dike – a collection of rhododendrons and azaleas (Rhododendron).
On the island and on the shores of the pond grow the bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) and the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides). By a big willow (Salix) grows a tall, regularly shaped bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), being already in the stage of creating the pneumatofores (respiratory roots) and the small cones.

THE HEATH

A collection _ many species, varieties and forms – of the Calluna and Erica. They blossom from early spring to late autumn. Other notable species: the marsh andromeda (Andromeda polifolia), the spike heath (Bruckenthalia spiculifolia) and dwarf forms of rhododendrons (Rhododendron). On the shore of the pond grows a South-American gunnera (Gunnera) of considerable size; its leaves, devoid of petioles, attain a diameter of 3-4 m. Near the pond shore, in the centre of the heath, grows a big amber bloom rhododendron (Rhododendron luteum), which was brought from Wola Żarczycka.

THE HUCUL HUT

Built by the East-Carpathian highlanders (the Huculs), on the model of the „koliba” – shepherd’s hut. In the Arboretum it serves as a „green classroom”, for educational purposes, and during rainy days – as a shelter, and, additionally, a small shop.

THE ROE MEADOW

A scenic glade; the verges of an aspen (Populus tremula) grove. Gives vista at an escarpment grown with the common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia); big-sized abeles (Populus alba), being a remainder of the erstwhile riverside marsh forests. A damp meadow with native plant species (buttercups Ranunculus; cuckooflowers Lychnis floscuculi), sometimes visited by roes (Capreolus capreolus).

THE SMALL POND

Patches of the common cattail (Typha latifolia); also – sedges (Carex), the marsh marigold (Caltha palustris), the bog arum (Calla palustris), the four-leaved pepperwort (Marsilea quadrifolia), and, on the verges, the royal fern (Osmunda regalis), the heart-leaved oxeye (Telekia speciosa), and a growth of the ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris). Numerous bald cypresses (Taxodium distichum). In spring-summer period moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), little grebes (Tachybaptus ruficollis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) nest and breed their nestlings here.

THE FLOWER MEADOW

The Japanese katsura tree (Cercidyphyllum japonicum), the wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis), the Swedish mountain ash (Sorbus intermedia), the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), the tree-of-heaven ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), a hybrid catalpa (Catalpa xerubescens), the Siberian crab apple (Malus baccata), the Amur cork-tree (Phellodendron amurense), the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), numerous beech (Fagus) varieties, the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior), nodding form, being a
natural seedling from a forest nursery. On the fringes of an old embankment – the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and a spruce double-line.

THE GOLDEN HILL

A growth of the purple-flowering raspberry (Rubus odorata), the Austrian pine (Pinus nigra var. austriaca), a collection of lilacs (Syringa), the orange-eye buddlea (Buddleja davidii), the English walnut (Juglans regia), an eighty years old cornellian cherry (Cornus mas) _ probably brought from Podole by the Zajączkowski family, the last owners of Bolestraszyce – the Siberian crab apple (Malus baccata), a separately standing London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), brought from the Czartoryskis’ gardens in Wiązownica. This is one of the first and biggest trees which were planted after the foundation of the Arboretum.

THE THERMOPHILOUS PLANTS

The capillary needlegrass (Stipa capillata), the dwarf cherry (Cerasus fruticosa), the Austrian flax (Linum austriacum), the gas-plant dittany (Dictamnus albus), the stool iris (Iris aphylla). On the roadside -the biggest yews (Taxus) in the whole Arboretum, being among the first trees planted in the Arboretum. Also _ the vast spreads of the Japanese kerria (Kerria japonica).

ON THE SLOPE

The European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata), the cotton tree (Viburnum lantana), the dog roses (Rosa canina), the big shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa), some magnolias (Magnolia), spireas (Spirea) and numerous hiba arborvitaes (Thujopsis dolabrata).

THE ROBINIA ESCARPMEN’T

A robinia grove; sizeable common horse chestnuts (Aesculus hippocastanum).

THE ESCARPMENT NEARBY THE CHURCH

Aged hornbeams (Carpinus betulus), the common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), the yews (Taxus), the white fir (Abies concolor), the Korean fir (Abies koreana), the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra), the Himalaya pine (Pinus griffithii), the Balkan pine (Pinus peuce), the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), the guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), the deutzias (Deutzia), and the herbaceous plants: the lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis), the ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris) and the common quince (Cydonia oblonga).

ON THE LANE-FORK

The grey alders (Alnus incana), the hedge maple (Acer campestre), the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), the spring snowflake (Leucoium vernum), the ostrich fern (Matteucia struthiopteris), the English ivy (Hedera helix) and the Alpine arum (Arum alpinum). In the upper part of the escarpment – the numerous yews (Taxus) of the Carpathian origin.

THE BIGGEST TREES IN THE ARBORETUM

The abele (Populus alba), near it – numerous trees and shrubs. The tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), the ivy-leaved maple (Acer cissifolium), the Amur cork-tree (Phellodendron amurense), the cornellian cherry (Cornus mas), and shrubs – the jasmines (Jasminum), the deutzias (Deutzia), the cotton-tree (Viburnum lantana).

IN THE MAINSTAY

A collection of rhododendrons and azaleas (Rhododendron), big-sized grey alders (Alnus incana), the hedge maple (Acer campestre), the ivy-leaved maple (Acer cissifolium).

THE SPRUCE-GROWN ESCARPMENT

Apart from spruces _ many young common beeches (Fagus sylvatica), common locusts (Robinia pseudoacacia), catalpas (Catalpa); also _ juniper (Juniperus) bushes and abeles (Populus alba) of considerable size. On a meadow, at the foot of the escarpment, grow numerous bald cypresses (Taxodium distichum).

THE PLANTS FROM BIESZCZADY MOUNTAINS

The European scopolia (Scopolia carniolica), the perennial honesty (Lunaria rediviva), Aconitum moldavicum, a shrub form of the green alder (Alnus viridis), Viola dacica. In the upper part of the escarpment _ the yews (Taxus) brought from Kalwaria Pacławska.

UNDER THE LINDEN

The oldest little leaf-linden (Tilia cordata) and an arbour; under them – the new plantings: the large-leaved linden (Tilia platyphyllos), the Crimean linden (Tilia euchlora), the American linden (Tilia americana), the silver linden (Tilia tomentosa) and its Warsaw variety. The place, where a young London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia) grows, commands a view on the Roe Meadow, the Ponds and the San Valley.

THE AZALEA RAVINE

Numerous species of wintergreen rhododendrons and azaleas. On the top of the escarpment – a trailing evonymus (Euonymus), the common sweet shrub (Calycanthus floridus), the hiba arborvitae (Thujopsis dolabrata) and the English ivy (Ilex aquifolium).

ON THE LANE-INTERSECTION

The firs (Abies), the yews (Taxus), the larches (Larix), the Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii). An old hornbeam (Carpinus) row, erstwhile surrounding fruit-tree plots.

THE PROMENADE

The lane leading to a small church, being a part of the former castle-spot. Originally there had been earthen embankments here, levelled at the beginning of the 20th century. A prospecting panorama on the San Valley and the village Bolestraszyce-Zabłocie. The Main Gate, the open-air ethnographic museum, the Ponds, the Heath and the poplar grove, together with the Roe Meadow and the of trees. The whitehorn (Crataegus monogyna) amazes with its size. Numerous false cypresses (Chamaecyparis) and junipers (Juniperus); also – a hybrid catalpa (Catalpa xerubescens) and the kiri (Paulownia tomentosa) _ a tree with relatively big leaves.

THE SMALL CHURCH

A panorama of the San Valley, prospect for the Ponds, the open-air ethnographic museum and the fort. In the loessic escarpment _ three-storey vaults, being a remnant of the old castle. In the near vicinity of the church, at the edge of the escarpment, grow the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra), the Balkan pine (Pinus peuce), the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) arboury forms of the common yew (Taxus baccata) and the Arboretum’s only specimen of the eucomia elm (Eucommia ulmoides).

THE CASTLE-SPOT

The magnolias (Magnolia), the lilacs (Syringa), the tulip-tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), the fringe tree (Chionanthus virginica), a collection of firs (Abies), the common horse chestnut – digitate variety (Aesculus hippocastanum), the Camperdown elm (Ulmus glabra `Camperdownii`), the paperbark maple (Acer griseum), the sun tree (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and various pines: the Armand pine (Pinus armandi), the Japanese white pine (Pinus parviflora), the red pine (Pinus resinosa), the Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi), the Himalaya pine (Pinus griffithii), the Scotch pine – Watereri variety (Pinus sylvestris). Here also grows the biggest linden (Tilia) in the whole garden, named Ksieni, majestically elevating on the castle-spot, like a noble lady, with her branches nodding to the very ground, and covering with her leaves the beautiful shape of her trunk and crown.

THE PERGOLA AND THE COLLECTION OF CONIFERS

The creepers: the English ivy (Hedera helix), the round- leaved bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), the yangtao actinidia (Actinidia chinensis), the kolomikta vine (Actinidia kolomikta), the Japanese wistaria (Wisteria floribunda), the climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris), the common Dutchman’s-pipe (Aristolochia durior), the trumpet vine (Campsis radicans), Clematis serratifolia, the Alpine honeysuckle (Lonicera alpigena), the creeper (Parthenocissus), the scarlet trumpet honeysuckle (Lonicera xbrownii), the Amur grape vine (Vitis amurensis), numerous varieties of the pencil cedar (Juniperus virginiana), of the common juniper (Juniperus communis) and of the pyramid Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis), the Japan cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), the shore pine (Pinus contorta), the Japanese plum-yew (Cephalotaxus harringtonia), varieties of the American arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis) – among others: golden, ericaceous, columnar, spherical and nodding ones. Several varieties of the pea-fruited cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera): filiform, golden filiform, golden pinnate, golden-hued pinnate, coniferous. Also – the Lawson false cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), some shapely, big-sized specimens of the California incense cedar (Calocedrus decurens), the common spruce-pyramid form (Picea abies), and the common spruce Virgata form, the white fir (Abies concolor), the Korean fir (Abies koreana), the Caucasian walnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia). The shrub world is represented by the panicled hydrangea (Hydrangea paniculata), several varieties of the box (Buxus), the laurocerasus (Laurocerasus), the bush cinquefoil (Potentilla fruticosa) and the tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa). On the outer side of the pergola grows the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris), and at the edge of the escarpment _ one of the first and bigger trees planted in the Arboretum: a London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), which was brought from Wiązownica, near Jarosław.

THE OLD BIRCHES

The remainder of an old alley; in it, planted in a line, grow: the black walnut (Juglans nigra), the Kentucky coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioicus), the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), the striped bark maple (Acer grosseri). Behind them: the white fir (Abies concolor), the Douglas fir _ nodding form (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica), the Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonica), the fringe tree (Chionanthus virginica). In the soil winters the late-flowering Magellan fuchsia (Fuchsia magellanica). On the trunks of the birches (Betula) and locusts (Robinia) spreads the Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus inserata), its leaves beautifully colouring in winter. Across the alley – the blooming English ivies (Hedera helix), climbing up the trunks, and a tree-lined passage.

IN THE FRONT OF THE MANSION

The pea-fruited cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera), the umbrella magnolia (Magnolia tripetala) and the acuminate magnolia (Magnolia acuminata), the California nutmeg (Torreya californica), the common horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), the ground clematis (Clematis recta), the climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris), the common periwinkle (Vinca minor), the Japanese creeper (Parthenocissus tricuspidata), the English ivy (Hedera helix) and, exhibited in the tubs, some exotic plants.

THE HAMLET

The European chestnut (Castanea sativa), the maidenhair tree (Ginkgo biloba), the giant filbert – red leaved variety (Corylus maxima `Purpurea`), the Kentucky coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioicus), the Chinese witch hazel (Hamamelis mollis), the Kousa dogwood (Cornus cousa), the European fly honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum) and a patch of the tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa). During the blossoming period this is one of the nicest-looking plant groups in the garden.

THE MAGNOLIA COLLECTION

The star magnolia (Magnolia stellata), the umbrella magnolia (Magnolia tripetala), the saucer magnolia (Magnolia xsoulangeana); also _ the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides), some decorative roses.

THE GEORGE’S WALL

The multitudinous stamps of marine animalcules are discernible in the pattern of the wall stone, which was brought from Huta Różaniecka, on the Roztocze area. Along the wall, past the main gate, extend the pomological gardens and nurseries. Along the wall runs the shortest way to the Fort San Rideau, while the north-western branch of of the track leads to the Fort XIIIb, surrounded by the arable fields.

THE TRELLIS

The round-leaved bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus), the actinidias (Actinidia), the three-leafed akebia (Akebia trifoliata), the Sargent hydrangea (Hydrangea sargentiana), the climbing hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris), the common Dutchman’s pipe (Aristolochia durior), the wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei). A collection of lilacs (Syringa) and some big-sized shrubs of the common quince (Cydonia oblonga) and of the cornellian cherry (Cornus mas), and also tall trees of the Turkish filbert (Corylus colurna). Deeper within, planted after the Arboretum had come into existence – the common beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and the durmasts (Quercus robur). At fringes _ the common locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), the largest in the garden.

THE LAWN AND THE DRIVEWAY TO THE MANSION

Blooming English ivy (Hedera helix), the Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea), brought from a natural station in the East Carpathians; also – a big-sized hazel (Corylus avellana), the yews (Taxus).

THE ROCKERY

Various species from Pieniny Mountains: Erysimum pieninicum, the falcate hare’s-ear (Bupleurum falcatum), the aizoon saxifrage (Saxifraga paniculata). East Carpathian species: Helleborus purpurascens, the European scopolia (Scopolia carniolica), Aconitum moldavicum, the Coutschian centaurea (Centaurea kotschyana), the hart’s-tongue (Phyllitis scolopendrium), the yellow pea (Lathyrus laevigatus), Cirsium decussatum, the aposeris (Aposeris foetida), Centaurea mollis, the cordate comfrey (Symphytum cordatum). Plants of thermophilous lawns: the gas-plant dittany (Dictamnus albus), the dwarf cherry (Cerasus fruticosa), the Austrian flax (Linum austriacum). Also _ the St Bernard’s-lily (Anthericum liliago), the Portuguese broom (Chamaecytisus albus), the tassel grape hyacinth (Muscari comosum), the spring adonis (Adonis vernalis), the stool iris (Iris aphylla), the snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris), the trumpet gentian (Gentiana clusii), the swallowwort gentian (Gentiana asclepiadea), the mountain avens (Dryas octopetala), the European globe flower (Trollius europaeus) and Viola dacica. Besides – numerous varieties of the common spruce (Picea abies), the California nutmeg (Torreya californica), the junipers (Juniperus) and the yews (Taxus). On the relatively small area many rare, endangered and disappearing species were collected. In general, over 260 plant species grow at this station.

THE YEW LINE

On the escarpment, aside of the line of yews, the following species are planted: the ramsons (Allium ursinum), the European scopolia (Scopolia carniolica), the daphne (Daphne mezereum), the European bladdernut (Staphylea pinnata), the hiba arborvitae (Thujopsis dolabrata), a collection of conifers and a row of big-sized European hazels (Corylus avellana).

THE NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM

The Natural History Museum is located on the first floor of the mansion. The permanent exposition „Let’s Protect Birds” is a presentation of the native bird species nesting in Poland. This exposition consists of the several sections. It presents, among others, a degree in which some of the bird species are endangered and takes into consideration the classification of birds in relation to their habitats: birds of deciduous and coniferous forests, birds of fields, of groves, birds of inland waters and sea birds. Game birds and, with the help of a colourful chart, the birds living in the Arboretum are also presented. Much of attention is focused on the practical means of bird protection.We would like to highlight the fact that the greater part of the stuffed specimens comes from older collections, whereas nowadays colour photographs are presented on bird exhibitions, and only those birds which died of natural causes, killed in collision with cars or electrocuted, are exhibited as stuffed specimens. This section of the exhibition shows also the bird feeders, watering troughs and nesting boxes. Besides, the exposition contains the sketches authored by Władysław Siwek, an outstanding graphic-artist naturalist. In the adjoining compartments there is a permanent exposition of photographs authored by Jerzy Piórecki, the founder of the Arboretum. The Museum houses also a permanent dendrological exposition: these are cones, cross-sections and fossils. A collection of nocturnal butterflies is worth mentioning as well. The revalorization and reconstruction of the vast ceilings and underground compartments, spreading under the castle-spot, is in course _ where in the future, among others, a collection of minerals will be displayed.

THE CENTER FOR NATURAL AND CULTURAL EDUCATION

The Arboretum is bent on protection of the natural and cultural heritage in this part of the country and an important part of this task is fulfilled by the Center for Natural and Cultural Education, which sets forth the guidelines and where, in various forms – classes lectures, competitions, trips – the problem in question is presented in its whole complexity and multitudinous interdependences.

THE MANSION FRONTAGE

A summer flower lawn, a thick bed of plants with broad leaves – the canna (Canna), surrounded by a collection of the butterfly bush (Buddleja) and also by the Swiss mountain pine (Pinus mugo), the hiba arborvitae (Thujopsis dolabrata) and the common spruce – conical form (Picea abies). In their time the hydrangeas (Hydrangea) appear in full bloom and the escarpments are covered with the trailing, wintergreen bearberry cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri)- all of them being a perfect substitute for an expensive lawn. In the 18th century mansion have their location a library, herbarium, laboratories, and an information center. The main entrance to the management office.

THE GREENHOUSE

In its main part trees and shrubs are housed during winter, and in summer they are exposed in tubs in front of the mansion, thus forming an orangery parterre. Among more interesting species we can name – Australian: the giant dracaena (Cordyline australis), the bottlebrush (Callistemon), the beefwood (Casuarina equisetifolia); Asiatic: the Japanese laurel (Aucuba japonica), the Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), the kusamaki (Podocarpus macrophyllus), the evergreen euonymus (Euonymus japonicus), the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus roseus), the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica); South-American: the strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum); African: the Mount Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) and the gardenia (Gardenia).

In the greenhouse there is a separated reproduction-spot, in which trees and shrubs, mainly coniferous ones, are rooted, and there is also a winter greenhouse, where during winter time the low-temperature-sensitive seedlings are storaged.

THE CONTAINER NURSERY

On its area we have collected more than ten maidenhair trees (Ginkgo biloba), also the Amur cork-trees (Phellodendron amurense), the Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the Lawson false cypresses (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) and the biggest in the whole garden cultivated apple (Malus domestica). A considerable part is occupied by the numerous, oldest in the Arboretum, varieties of rhododendrons evergreen, and azaleas (Rhododendron) among which a special attention should be paid to the following varieties: Anneke, Fanny, Fireball, Gibraltar, Glowing Embers, Golden Eagle, Hotspur Red, Irene Koster, Narcissiflora, Norma, Saturnus, Spek’s Brilliant. Additionally, there is a big concentration of the amber-bloom rhododendron (Rhododendron luteum) originating from Wola Żarczycka. A plant cultivation in containers is also pursued and there is a permanently marked off area destined for reproduction of the arboreal flora specified in the Index.

THE POMOLOGICAL COLLECTION

This is a collection of the varieties and forms of fruit trees cultivated in the older days, mainly apple trees from the Małopolska region, but also geans (Cerasus avium) and cornellian cherries (Cornus mas). The pomological collection contains, among others, many varieties of apple fruits: Adam Mickiewicz, Ananas Berżenicki, Aporta, Bezogonkowa Kalwaryjska, Boiken, Boskoop, Bukówka Czerwona, Coulons Reinette, Court-Pendu Plat, Cox’s Orange, Danziger Kantapfel, Duchess of Oldenburg, Eiserapfel, Geflammter Kardinal, Gelber Richard, Gloria Mundi, Golden Noble, Gravensteiner, Grüner Stettiner, Kaiser Wilhelm, Kandil Sinap, King of the Pippins, Krügers Dickstiel, Landsberg, Linda, Longfield, Pontoise, Pomme Framboise, Possarts Nalivia, Rajewska, Rapa Zielona, Red Boskoop, Reinette de Baumann, Reinette Grise du Canada, Rept, Ribston Pipping, Węgierczyk, Yellow Transparent, Zigeunerin and many others.

THE NURSERIES

The nurseries in our Arboretum provide us with the seedlings for our own plantings and for the private and institutional consignees as well.

We accept commissions for the seedling material from historic gardens and urban greens administration. The species index, being in accordance with the currently published catalogues, can be bought in the Arboretum; it lists several dozen species of coniferous plants, creepers and perennial plants.

FORT XIIIb

Not so far from the Arboretum two forts from the Austro-Hungarian Empire times are located, being an additional attraction to the visitors of the Arboretum. Their stormy history and the system of fortification layouts is expounded in the corresponding literature. Fort XIIIb was included into the Arboretum domain in 1996. In the future a collection of native plants will be situated there, and after completion of the adaptation works the Fort will be open to the public. Simultaneously, all the historic details and features of this old fort, which was a part of the Przemyl Fortress during the First World War, will be preserved.

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